The goal of my research is to enable the safe operation of autonomous systems, such as unmanned aircraft, autonomous cars, and smart infrastructure.  My research focuses on modeling, building, and validating intelligent safety-critical systems.  My research combines ideas from decision theory, reinforcement learning, machine learning, game theory, and control theory.

Adaptive Stress Testing

Adaptive Stress Testing (AST) is a novel framework that frames finding the most likely failure scenario as a sequential decision-making problem, allowing existing algorithms such as Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) and deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to solve them.  AST has been used as part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to discover scenarios of near mid-air collisions (NMACs) in prototypes of the next-generation Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS X).  AST has also been applied to analyze trajectory planning systems for unmanned aircraft and autonomous cars at pedestrian crossings.

Related Publications:

  • R. Lee and L. Shen, System identification of a Cessna 182 model UAV, 2007.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2007,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Lu Shen},
    title = {System Identification of a {C}essna 182 Model {UAV}},
    organization = {{S}tanford {U}niversity CS229},
    year = {2007}
    }
  • R. Lee and C. Ippolito, “A perception and mapping approach for plume detection in payload directed flight,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2009,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey},
    title = {A Perception and Mapping Approach for Plume Detection in Payload Directed Flight},
    booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2009},
    month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee, C. Ippolito, Y. Yeh, J. Spritzer, and G. Phelps, “Payload-directed control of geophysical magnetic surveys,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010a,
    Title = {Payload-Directed Control of Geophysical Magnetic Surveys},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Spritzer, John and Phelps, Geoffrey},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2010},
    Month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of human behavior in mid-air encounters,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010b,
    Title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Human Behavior in Mid-Air Encounters},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H},
    Booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    Year = {2010}
    }
  • J. Dolan, R. Lee, Y. Yeh, C. Yeh, D. Y. Nguyen, S. Ben-Menahem, and A. K. Ishihara, “Neural network estimation of photovoltaic I–V curves under partially shaded conditions,” in International joint conference on neural networks (ijcnn), 2011, p. 1358–1365.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Dolan2011,
    author = {Dolan, Jacques and Lee, Ritchie and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Yeh, Chiping and Nguyen, Daniel Y and Ben-Menahem, Shahar and Ishihara, Abraham K},
    title = {Neural Network Estimation of Photovoltaic {I}--{V} Curves Under Partially Shaded Conditions},
    booktitle = ijcnn,
    year = {2011},
    pages = {1358--1365},
    organization = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee, S. Backhaus, J. Bono, D. H. Wolpert, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Modeling humans as reinforcement learners: how to predict human behavior in multi-stage games,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2011,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Backhaus, Scott and Bono, James and Wolpert, David H. and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games},
    booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of pilot behavior during mid-air encounters,” in Decision making with imperfect decision makers, Springer, 2012, vol. 28, pp. 75-111.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2012,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H.},
    title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Pilot Behavior During Mid-Air Encounters},
    booktitle = {Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {28},
    series = {Intelligent Systems Reference Library},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {75-111}
    }
  • E. Denney, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, and G. Pai, “An integrated safety and systems engineering methodology for small unmanned aircraft systems,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Denney2012,
    Title = {An Integrated Safety and Systems Engineering Methodology for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
    Author = {Ewen Denney and Corey Ippolito and Ritchie Lee and Ganesh Pai},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • E. J. Schlicht, R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, M. J. Kochenderfer, and B. Tracey, “Predicting the behavior of interacting humans by fusing data from multiple sources,” in Conference on uncertainty in artificial intelligence (uai), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Schlicht2012,
    Title = {Predicting the Behavior of Interacting Humans by Fusing Data from Multiple Sources},
    Author = {Erik J. Schlicht and Ritchie Lee and David H. Wolpert and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Brendan Tracey},
    Booktitle = uai,
    Organization = {AUAI},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • G. Yan, R. Lee, A. Kent, and D. H. Wolpert, “Towards a Bayesian network game framework for evaluating DDoS attacks and defense,” in Conference on computer and communications security (ccs), 2012, p. 553–566.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yan2012,
    Title = {Towards a {B}ayesian Network Game Framework for Evaluating {DDoS} Attacks and Defense},
    Author = {Yan, Guanhua and Lee, Ritchie and Kent, Alex and Wolpert, David H.},
    Booktitle = acmccs,
    Year = {2012},
    Organization = {ACM},
    Pages = {553--566}
    }
  • Y. Yildiz, R. Lee, and G. Brat, “Using game theoretic models to predict pilot behavior in NextGen merging and landing scenario,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yildiz2012,
    Title = {Using Game Theoretic Models to Predict Pilot Behavior in {N}ext{G}en Merging and Landing Scenario},
    Author = {Yildiz, Yildiray and Lee, Ritchie and Brat, Guillaume},
    Booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, J. Bono, S. Backhaus, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Counter-factual reinforcement learning: how to model decision-makers that anticipate the future,” in Decision making and imperfection, Springer, 2013, vol. 474, pp. 101-128.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2013,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H. and Bono, James and Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Counter-Factual Reinforcement Learning: How to Model Decision-Makers That Anticipate the Future},
    booktitle = {Decision Making and Imperfection},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {474},
    series = {Studies in Computational Intelligence},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {101-128}
    }
  • S. Backhaus, R. Bent, J. Bono, R. Lee, B. Tracey, D. H. Wolpert, D. Xie, and Y. Yildiz, “Cyber-physical security: a game theory model of humans interacting over control systems,” Ieee transactions on smart grid, vol. 4, iss. 4, p. 2320–2327, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Backhaus2013,
    author = {Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Bono, James and Lee, Ritchie and Tracey, Brendan and Wolpert, David H. and Xie, Dongping and Yildiz, Yildiray},
    title = {Cyber-Physical Security: A Game Theory Model of Humans Interacting Over Control Systems},
    journal = ieeesg,
    year = {2013},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {2320--2327},
    publisher = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee and M. Rajabi, Assessing NuPIC and CLA in a machine learning context using NASA aviation datasets, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2014,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mariam Rajabi},
    title = {Assessing {NuPIC} and {CLA} in a Machine Learning Context Using {NASA} Aviation Datasets},
    organization = {Carnegie Mellon University EE18799-SV},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • G. A. Phelps, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, J. Spritzer, and Y. Yeh, “Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle,” United States Geological Survey (USGS) 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Phelps2014,
    author = {Phelps, Geoffrey A and Ippolito, Corey and Lee, Ritchie and Spritzer, John and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu},
    title = {Investigations into Near-Real-Time Surveying for Geophysical Data Collection Using an Autonomous Ground Vehicle},
    institution = usgs,
    year = {2014}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, G. P. Brat, and M. P. Owen, “Adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2015,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Ole J. Mengshoel and Guillaume P. Brat and Michael P. Owen},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • A. Agogino, A. Iscen, R. Lee, D. Bowers, K. Tumer, and G. Brat, “Scalable hierarchical multifidelity simulation and multiagent optimization of air traffic,” in AAMAS workshop on massive multiagent systems, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2015,
    Title = {Scalable Hierarchical Multifidelity Simulation and Multiagent Optimization of Air Traffic},
    Author = {Adrian Agogino and Atil Iscen and Ritchie Lee and Devin Bowers and Kagan Tumer and Guillaume Brat},
    Booktitle = {{AAMAS} Workshop on Massive Multiagent Systems},
    Year = {2015}
    }
  • R. Lee, A. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Algorithms and tools for model-based V&V of autonomy software,” NASA 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Lee2017,
    Title = {Algorithms and Tools for Model-Based {V\&V} of Autonomy Software},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Agogino, Adrian and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    Institution = {NASA},
    Year = {2017}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Brush, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Differential adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Brush, Jeffrey and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Differential Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    year = {2018},
    note = {Best Paper Award},
    Organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, and J. Silbermann, “Interpretable categorization of heterogeneous time series data,” in International conference on data mining (sdm), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Kochenderfer, Mykel J. and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Silbermann, Joshua},
    title = {Interpretable Categorization of Heterogeneous Time Series Data},
    booktitle = sdm,
    year = {2018},
    Organization = {SIAM}
    }
  • M. Koren, S. Alsaif, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing for autonomous vehicles,” in Ieee intelligent vehicles symposium (iv), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Koren2018,
    author = {Mark Koren and Saud Alsaif and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing for Autonomous Vehicles},
    booktitle = iv,
    Organization = {IEEE},
    year = {2018}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. K. Agogino, D. Giannakopoulou, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory planning systems,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2019a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Planning Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2019},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Challenges of explaining real-time planning,” in ICAPS workshop on explainable planning (XAIP), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2019a,
    Author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Challenges of Explaining Real-Time Planning},
    booktitle = {{ICAPS} Workshop on Explainable Planning ({XAIP})},
    year = {2019}
    }
  • R. Lee, “Adastress: adaptive stress testing and interpretable categorization for safety-critical systems,” PhD Thesis, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @phdthesis{leethesis,
    author = {Ritchie Lee},
    title = {AdaStress: Adaptive Stress Testing and Interpretable Categorization for Safety-Critical Systems},
    school = {Carnegie Mellon University},
    year = {2019},
    month = {May}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of safety-critical systems,” in Safe, autonomous, and intelligent vehicles, Springer, 2019, p. 77–95.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2019b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Safety-Critical Systems},
    booktitle = {Safe, Autonomous, and Intelligent Vehicles},
    series = {Unmanned Systems Technology},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2019},
    pages = {77--95}
    }
  • R. Lee, Clarke Justin, A. K. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Improving trust in deep neural networks using nearest neighbors,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2020a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Clarke, Justin, and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Improving Trust in Deep Neural Networks using Nearest Neighbors},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2020},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. J. Moss, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory predictions in flight management systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Moss2020a,
    author = {Robert J. Moss and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Predictions in Flight Management Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Scalable autonomous vehicle safety validation through dynamic programming and scene decomposition,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Corso2020a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Scalable Autonomous Vehicle Safety Validation Through Dynamic Programming and Scene Decomposition},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • K. D. Julian, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Validation of image-based neural network controllers through adaptive stress testing,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Julian2020a,
    author = {Kyle D. Julian and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Validation of Image-Based Neural Network Controllers Through Adaptive Stress Testing},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Silbermann, M. Owen, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing: finding likely failure events with reinforcement learning,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 69, p. 1165–1201, 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Lee2020b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Silbermann, Joshua and Owen, Michael and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing: Finding Likely Failure Events with Reinforcement Learning},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2020},
    volume = {69},
    pages = {1165--1201}
    }
  • Proc. 12th international NASA formal methods symposium, R. Lee, S. Jha, A. Mavridou, and D. Giannakoupoulou, Eds., Springer, 2020, vol. 12229.
    [Bibtex]
    @book{Lee2020c,
    title = {Proc. 12th International {NASA} Formal Methods Symposium},
    editor = {Ritchie Lee and Susmit Jha and Anastasia Mavridou and Dimitra Giannakoupoulou},
    series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
    volume = {12229},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2020},
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Machine learning explainability and transferability for path navigation,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Agogino2021a,
    author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Machine Learning Explainability and Transferability for Path Navigation},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. J. Moss, M. Koren, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “A survey of algorithms for black-box safety validation,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 72, p. 377–428, 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Corso2021a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Robert J. Moss and Mark Koren and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {A Survey of Algorithms for Black-box Safety Validation},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2021},
    volume = {72},
    pages = {377--428}
    }
  • M. Durling, H. Herencia-Zapana, B. Meng, M. Meiners, J. Hochwarth, N. Visser, R. Lee, R. Moss, and V. T. Valapil, “Certification considerations for adaptive stress testing of airborne software,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Durling2021a,
    title = {Certification Considerations for Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Software},
    author = {Durling, Michael and Herencia-Zapana, Heber and Meng, Baoluo and Meiners, Mike and Hochwarth, Joachim and Visser, Nicholas and Lee, Ritchie and Moss, Robert and Valapil, Vidhya Tekken},
    booktitle = dasc,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lipkis, R. Lee, J. Silbermann, and T. Young, “Adaptive stress testing of collision avoidance systems for small uass with deep reinforcement learning,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2022.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lipkis2022,
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Collision Avoidance Systems for Small UASs with Deep Reinforcement Learning},
    author = {Lipkis, Rory and Lee, Ritchie and Silbermann, Joshua and Young, Tyler},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2022}
    }
 

Differential Adaptive Stress Testing (DAST) extends the AST approach to analyze differences in failure behavior between two systems.  DAST finds failure scenarios where the test system fails but the baseline system does not, making it very useful for comparing two candidate systems or regression testing of successive prototypes.  DAST has been used to compare scenarios of near mid-air collisions between ACAS X and the existing Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS).

Related Publications:

  • R. Lee and L. Shen, System identification of a Cessna 182 model UAV, 2007.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2007,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Lu Shen},
    title = {System Identification of a {C}essna 182 Model {UAV}},
    organization = {{S}tanford {U}niversity CS229},
    year = {2007}
    }
  • R. Lee and C. Ippolito, “A perception and mapping approach for plume detection in payload directed flight,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2009,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey},
    title = {A Perception and Mapping Approach for Plume Detection in Payload Directed Flight},
    booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2009},
    month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee, C. Ippolito, Y. Yeh, J. Spritzer, and G. Phelps, “Payload-directed control of geophysical magnetic surveys,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010a,
    Title = {Payload-Directed Control of Geophysical Magnetic Surveys},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Spritzer, John and Phelps, Geoffrey},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2010},
    Month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of human behavior in mid-air encounters,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010b,
    Title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Human Behavior in Mid-Air Encounters},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H},
    Booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    Year = {2010}
    }
  • J. Dolan, R. Lee, Y. Yeh, C. Yeh, D. Y. Nguyen, S. Ben-Menahem, and A. K. Ishihara, “Neural network estimation of photovoltaic I–V curves under partially shaded conditions,” in International joint conference on neural networks (ijcnn), 2011, p. 1358–1365.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Dolan2011,
    author = {Dolan, Jacques and Lee, Ritchie and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Yeh, Chiping and Nguyen, Daniel Y and Ben-Menahem, Shahar and Ishihara, Abraham K},
    title = {Neural Network Estimation of Photovoltaic {I}--{V} Curves Under Partially Shaded Conditions},
    booktitle = ijcnn,
    year = {2011},
    pages = {1358--1365},
    organization = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee, S. Backhaus, J. Bono, D. H. Wolpert, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Modeling humans as reinforcement learners: how to predict human behavior in multi-stage games,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2011,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Backhaus, Scott and Bono, James and Wolpert, David H. and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games},
    booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of pilot behavior during mid-air encounters,” in Decision making with imperfect decision makers, Springer, 2012, vol. 28, pp. 75-111.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2012,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H.},
    title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Pilot Behavior During Mid-Air Encounters},
    booktitle = {Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {28},
    series = {Intelligent Systems Reference Library},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {75-111}
    }
  • E. Denney, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, and G. Pai, “An integrated safety and systems engineering methodology for small unmanned aircraft systems,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Denney2012,
    Title = {An Integrated Safety and Systems Engineering Methodology for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
    Author = {Ewen Denney and Corey Ippolito and Ritchie Lee and Ganesh Pai},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • E. J. Schlicht, R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, M. J. Kochenderfer, and B. Tracey, “Predicting the behavior of interacting humans by fusing data from multiple sources,” in Conference on uncertainty in artificial intelligence (uai), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Schlicht2012,
    Title = {Predicting the Behavior of Interacting Humans by Fusing Data from Multiple Sources},
    Author = {Erik J. Schlicht and Ritchie Lee and David H. Wolpert and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Brendan Tracey},
    Booktitle = uai,
    Organization = {AUAI},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • G. Yan, R. Lee, A. Kent, and D. H. Wolpert, “Towards a Bayesian network game framework for evaluating DDoS attacks and defense,” in Conference on computer and communications security (ccs), 2012, p. 553–566.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yan2012,
    Title = {Towards a {B}ayesian Network Game Framework for Evaluating {DDoS} Attacks and Defense},
    Author = {Yan, Guanhua and Lee, Ritchie and Kent, Alex and Wolpert, David H.},
    Booktitle = acmccs,
    Year = {2012},
    Organization = {ACM},
    Pages = {553--566}
    }
  • Y. Yildiz, R. Lee, and G. Brat, “Using game theoretic models to predict pilot behavior in NextGen merging and landing scenario,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yildiz2012,
    Title = {Using Game Theoretic Models to Predict Pilot Behavior in {N}ext{G}en Merging and Landing Scenario},
    Author = {Yildiz, Yildiray and Lee, Ritchie and Brat, Guillaume},
    Booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, J. Bono, S. Backhaus, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Counter-factual reinforcement learning: how to model decision-makers that anticipate the future,” in Decision making and imperfection, Springer, 2013, vol. 474, pp. 101-128.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2013,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H. and Bono, James and Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Counter-Factual Reinforcement Learning: How to Model Decision-Makers That Anticipate the Future},
    booktitle = {Decision Making and Imperfection},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {474},
    series = {Studies in Computational Intelligence},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {101-128}
    }
  • S. Backhaus, R. Bent, J. Bono, R. Lee, B. Tracey, D. H. Wolpert, D. Xie, and Y. Yildiz, “Cyber-physical security: a game theory model of humans interacting over control systems,” Ieee transactions on smart grid, vol. 4, iss. 4, p. 2320–2327, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Backhaus2013,
    author = {Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Bono, James and Lee, Ritchie and Tracey, Brendan and Wolpert, David H. and Xie, Dongping and Yildiz, Yildiray},
    title = {Cyber-Physical Security: A Game Theory Model of Humans Interacting Over Control Systems},
    journal = ieeesg,
    year = {2013},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {2320--2327},
    publisher = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee and M. Rajabi, Assessing NuPIC and CLA in a machine learning context using NASA aviation datasets, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2014,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mariam Rajabi},
    title = {Assessing {NuPIC} and {CLA} in a Machine Learning Context Using {NASA} Aviation Datasets},
    organization = {Carnegie Mellon University EE18799-SV},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • G. A. Phelps, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, J. Spritzer, and Y. Yeh, “Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle,” United States Geological Survey (USGS) 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Phelps2014,
    author = {Phelps, Geoffrey A and Ippolito, Corey and Lee, Ritchie and Spritzer, John and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu},
    title = {Investigations into Near-Real-Time Surveying for Geophysical Data Collection Using an Autonomous Ground Vehicle},
    institution = usgs,
    year = {2014}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, G. P. Brat, and M. P. Owen, “Adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2015,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Ole J. Mengshoel and Guillaume P. Brat and Michael P. Owen},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • A. Agogino, A. Iscen, R. Lee, D. Bowers, K. Tumer, and G. Brat, “Scalable hierarchical multifidelity simulation and multiagent optimization of air traffic,” in AAMAS workshop on massive multiagent systems, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2015,
    Title = {Scalable Hierarchical Multifidelity Simulation and Multiagent Optimization of Air Traffic},
    Author = {Adrian Agogino and Atil Iscen and Ritchie Lee and Devin Bowers and Kagan Tumer and Guillaume Brat},
    Booktitle = {{AAMAS} Workshop on Massive Multiagent Systems},
    Year = {2015}
    }
  • R. Lee, A. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Algorithms and tools for model-based V&V of autonomy software,” NASA 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Lee2017,
    Title = {Algorithms and Tools for Model-Based {V\&V} of Autonomy Software},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Agogino, Adrian and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    Institution = {NASA},
    Year = {2017}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Brush, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Differential adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Brush, Jeffrey and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Differential Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    year = {2018},
    note = {Best Paper Award},
    Organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, and J. Silbermann, “Interpretable categorization of heterogeneous time series data,” in International conference on data mining (sdm), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Kochenderfer, Mykel J. and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Silbermann, Joshua},
    title = {Interpretable Categorization of Heterogeneous Time Series Data},
    booktitle = sdm,
    year = {2018},
    Organization = {SIAM}
    }
  • M. Koren, S. Alsaif, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing for autonomous vehicles,” in Ieee intelligent vehicles symposium (iv), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Koren2018,
    author = {Mark Koren and Saud Alsaif and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing for Autonomous Vehicles},
    booktitle = iv,
    Organization = {IEEE},
    year = {2018}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. K. Agogino, D. Giannakopoulou, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory planning systems,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2019a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Planning Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2019},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Challenges of explaining real-time planning,” in ICAPS workshop on explainable planning (XAIP), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2019a,
    Author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Challenges of Explaining Real-Time Planning},
    booktitle = {{ICAPS} Workshop on Explainable Planning ({XAIP})},
    year = {2019}
    }
  • R. Lee, “Adastress: adaptive stress testing and interpretable categorization for safety-critical systems,” PhD Thesis, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @phdthesis{leethesis,
    author = {Ritchie Lee},
    title = {AdaStress: Adaptive Stress Testing and Interpretable Categorization for Safety-Critical Systems},
    school = {Carnegie Mellon University},
    year = {2019},
    month = {May}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of safety-critical systems,” in Safe, autonomous, and intelligent vehicles, Springer, 2019, p. 77–95.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2019b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Safety-Critical Systems},
    booktitle = {Safe, Autonomous, and Intelligent Vehicles},
    series = {Unmanned Systems Technology},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2019},
    pages = {77--95}
    }
  • R. Lee, Clarke Justin, A. K. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Improving trust in deep neural networks using nearest neighbors,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2020a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Clarke, Justin, and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Improving Trust in Deep Neural Networks using Nearest Neighbors},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2020},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. J. Moss, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory predictions in flight management systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Moss2020a,
    author = {Robert J. Moss and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Predictions in Flight Management Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Scalable autonomous vehicle safety validation through dynamic programming and scene decomposition,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Corso2020a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Scalable Autonomous Vehicle Safety Validation Through Dynamic Programming and Scene Decomposition},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • K. D. Julian, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Validation of image-based neural network controllers through adaptive stress testing,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Julian2020a,
    author = {Kyle D. Julian and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Validation of Image-Based Neural Network Controllers Through Adaptive Stress Testing},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Silbermann, M. Owen, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing: finding likely failure events with reinforcement learning,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 69, p. 1165–1201, 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Lee2020b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Silbermann, Joshua and Owen, Michael and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing: Finding Likely Failure Events with Reinforcement Learning},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2020},
    volume = {69},
    pages = {1165--1201}
    }
  • Proc. 12th international NASA formal methods symposium, R. Lee, S. Jha, A. Mavridou, and D. Giannakoupoulou, Eds., Springer, 2020, vol. 12229.
    [Bibtex]
    @book{Lee2020c,
    title = {Proc. 12th International {NASA} Formal Methods Symposium},
    editor = {Ritchie Lee and Susmit Jha and Anastasia Mavridou and Dimitra Giannakoupoulou},
    series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
    volume = {12229},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2020},
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Machine learning explainability and transferability for path navigation,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Agogino2021a,
    author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Machine Learning Explainability and Transferability for Path Navigation},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. J. Moss, M. Koren, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “A survey of algorithms for black-box safety validation,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 72, p. 377–428, 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Corso2021a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Robert J. Moss and Mark Koren and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {A Survey of Algorithms for Black-box Safety Validation},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2021},
    volume = {72},
    pages = {377--428}
    }
  • M. Durling, H. Herencia-Zapana, B. Meng, M. Meiners, J. Hochwarth, N. Visser, R. Lee, R. Moss, and V. T. Valapil, “Certification considerations for adaptive stress testing of airborne software,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Durling2021a,
    title = {Certification Considerations for Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Software},
    author = {Durling, Michael and Herencia-Zapana, Heber and Meng, Baoluo and Meiners, Mike and Hochwarth, Joachim and Visser, Nicholas and Lee, Ritchie and Moss, Robert and Valapil, Vidhya Tekken},
    booktitle = dasc,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lipkis, R. Lee, J. Silbermann, and T. Young, “Adaptive stress testing of collision avoidance systems for small uass with deep reinforcement learning,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2022.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lipkis2022,
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Collision Avoidance Systems for Small UASs with Deep Reinforcement Learning},
    author = {Lipkis, Rory and Lee, Ritchie and Silbermann, Joshua and Young, Tyler},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2022}
    }
 

Automatic Categorization

Grammar-Based Decision Tree (GBDT) is a machine learning model for automatically categorizing and explaining failure scenarios to help domain experts diagnose the underlying issues of failures.  GBDT combines a context-free grammar, temporal logic, expression optimization, and decision tree into a single framework that provides human-interpretability and support for high-dimensional heterogeneous time series data.  Decision rules in the tree are Boolean expressions derived from a grammar, allowing much flexibility and user customization.  We take each leaf node to be a separate category and the conjunction of branch expressions to be its explanation.  GBDT learning relies on existing expression optimization algorithms, such as genetic programming and grammatical evolution.  GBDT has been applied to categorize scenarios of near mid-air collision in ACAS X.

Related Publications:

  • R. Lee and L. Shen, System identification of a Cessna 182 model UAV, 2007.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2007,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Lu Shen},
    title = {System Identification of a {C}essna 182 Model {UAV}},
    organization = {{S}tanford {U}niversity CS229},
    year = {2007}
    }
  • R. Lee and C. Ippolito, “A perception and mapping approach for plume detection in payload directed flight,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2009,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey},
    title = {A Perception and Mapping Approach for Plume Detection in Payload Directed Flight},
    booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2009},
    month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee, C. Ippolito, Y. Yeh, J. Spritzer, and G. Phelps, “Payload-directed control of geophysical magnetic surveys,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010a,
    Title = {Payload-Directed Control of Geophysical Magnetic Surveys},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Spritzer, John and Phelps, Geoffrey},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2010},
    Month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of human behavior in mid-air encounters,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010b,
    Title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Human Behavior in Mid-Air Encounters},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H},
    Booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    Year = {2010}
    }
  • J. Dolan, R. Lee, Y. Yeh, C. Yeh, D. Y. Nguyen, S. Ben-Menahem, and A. K. Ishihara, “Neural network estimation of photovoltaic I–V curves under partially shaded conditions,” in International joint conference on neural networks (ijcnn), 2011, p. 1358–1365.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Dolan2011,
    author = {Dolan, Jacques and Lee, Ritchie and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Yeh, Chiping and Nguyen, Daniel Y and Ben-Menahem, Shahar and Ishihara, Abraham K},
    title = {Neural Network Estimation of Photovoltaic {I}--{V} Curves Under Partially Shaded Conditions},
    booktitle = ijcnn,
    year = {2011},
    pages = {1358--1365},
    organization = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee, S. Backhaus, J. Bono, D. H. Wolpert, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Modeling humans as reinforcement learners: how to predict human behavior in multi-stage games,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2011,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Backhaus, Scott and Bono, James and Wolpert, David H. and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games},
    booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of pilot behavior during mid-air encounters,” in Decision making with imperfect decision makers, Springer, 2012, vol. 28, pp. 75-111.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2012,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H.},
    title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Pilot Behavior During Mid-Air Encounters},
    booktitle = {Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {28},
    series = {Intelligent Systems Reference Library},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {75-111}
    }
  • E. Denney, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, and G. Pai, “An integrated safety and systems engineering methodology for small unmanned aircraft systems,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Denney2012,
    Title = {An Integrated Safety and Systems Engineering Methodology for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
    Author = {Ewen Denney and Corey Ippolito and Ritchie Lee and Ganesh Pai},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • E. J. Schlicht, R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, M. J. Kochenderfer, and B. Tracey, “Predicting the behavior of interacting humans by fusing data from multiple sources,” in Conference on uncertainty in artificial intelligence (uai), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Schlicht2012,
    Title = {Predicting the Behavior of Interacting Humans by Fusing Data from Multiple Sources},
    Author = {Erik J. Schlicht and Ritchie Lee and David H. Wolpert and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Brendan Tracey},
    Booktitle = uai,
    Organization = {AUAI},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • G. Yan, R. Lee, A. Kent, and D. H. Wolpert, “Towards a Bayesian network game framework for evaluating DDoS attacks and defense,” in Conference on computer and communications security (ccs), 2012, p. 553–566.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yan2012,
    Title = {Towards a {B}ayesian Network Game Framework for Evaluating {DDoS} Attacks and Defense},
    Author = {Yan, Guanhua and Lee, Ritchie and Kent, Alex and Wolpert, David H.},
    Booktitle = acmccs,
    Year = {2012},
    Organization = {ACM},
    Pages = {553--566}
    }
  • Y. Yildiz, R. Lee, and G. Brat, “Using game theoretic models to predict pilot behavior in NextGen merging and landing scenario,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yildiz2012,
    Title = {Using Game Theoretic Models to Predict Pilot Behavior in {N}ext{G}en Merging and Landing Scenario},
    Author = {Yildiz, Yildiray and Lee, Ritchie and Brat, Guillaume},
    Booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, J. Bono, S. Backhaus, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Counter-factual reinforcement learning: how to model decision-makers that anticipate the future,” in Decision making and imperfection, Springer, 2013, vol. 474, pp. 101-128.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2013,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H. and Bono, James and Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Counter-Factual Reinforcement Learning: How to Model Decision-Makers That Anticipate the Future},
    booktitle = {Decision Making and Imperfection},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {474},
    series = {Studies in Computational Intelligence},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {101-128}
    }
  • S. Backhaus, R. Bent, J. Bono, R. Lee, B. Tracey, D. H. Wolpert, D. Xie, and Y. Yildiz, “Cyber-physical security: a game theory model of humans interacting over control systems,” Ieee transactions on smart grid, vol. 4, iss. 4, p. 2320–2327, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Backhaus2013,
    author = {Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Bono, James and Lee, Ritchie and Tracey, Brendan and Wolpert, David H. and Xie, Dongping and Yildiz, Yildiray},
    title = {Cyber-Physical Security: A Game Theory Model of Humans Interacting Over Control Systems},
    journal = ieeesg,
    year = {2013},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {2320--2327},
    publisher = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee and M. Rajabi, Assessing NuPIC and CLA in a machine learning context using NASA aviation datasets, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2014,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mariam Rajabi},
    title = {Assessing {NuPIC} and {CLA} in a Machine Learning Context Using {NASA} Aviation Datasets},
    organization = {Carnegie Mellon University EE18799-SV},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • G. A. Phelps, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, J. Spritzer, and Y. Yeh, “Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle,” United States Geological Survey (USGS) 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Phelps2014,
    author = {Phelps, Geoffrey A and Ippolito, Corey and Lee, Ritchie and Spritzer, John and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu},
    title = {Investigations into Near-Real-Time Surveying for Geophysical Data Collection Using an Autonomous Ground Vehicle},
    institution = usgs,
    year = {2014}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, G. P. Brat, and M. P. Owen, “Adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2015,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Ole J. Mengshoel and Guillaume P. Brat and Michael P. Owen},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • A. Agogino, A. Iscen, R. Lee, D. Bowers, K. Tumer, and G. Brat, “Scalable hierarchical multifidelity simulation and multiagent optimization of air traffic,” in AAMAS workshop on massive multiagent systems, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2015,
    Title = {Scalable Hierarchical Multifidelity Simulation and Multiagent Optimization of Air Traffic},
    Author = {Adrian Agogino and Atil Iscen and Ritchie Lee and Devin Bowers and Kagan Tumer and Guillaume Brat},
    Booktitle = {{AAMAS} Workshop on Massive Multiagent Systems},
    Year = {2015}
    }
  • R. Lee, A. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Algorithms and tools for model-based V&V of autonomy software,” NASA 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Lee2017,
    Title = {Algorithms and Tools for Model-Based {V\&V} of Autonomy Software},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Agogino, Adrian and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    Institution = {NASA},
    Year = {2017}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Brush, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Differential adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Brush, Jeffrey and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Differential Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    year = {2018},
    note = {Best Paper Award},
    Organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, and J. Silbermann, “Interpretable categorization of heterogeneous time series data,” in International conference on data mining (sdm), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Kochenderfer, Mykel J. and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Silbermann, Joshua},
    title = {Interpretable Categorization of Heterogeneous Time Series Data},
    booktitle = sdm,
    year = {2018},
    Organization = {SIAM}
    }
  • M. Koren, S. Alsaif, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing for autonomous vehicles,” in Ieee intelligent vehicles symposium (iv), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Koren2018,
    author = {Mark Koren and Saud Alsaif and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing for Autonomous Vehicles},
    booktitle = iv,
    Organization = {IEEE},
    year = {2018}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. K. Agogino, D. Giannakopoulou, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory planning systems,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2019a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Planning Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2019},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Challenges of explaining real-time planning,” in ICAPS workshop on explainable planning (XAIP), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2019a,
    Author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Challenges of Explaining Real-Time Planning},
    booktitle = {{ICAPS} Workshop on Explainable Planning ({XAIP})},
    year = {2019}
    }
  • R. Lee, “Adastress: adaptive stress testing and interpretable categorization for safety-critical systems,” PhD Thesis, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @phdthesis{leethesis,
    author = {Ritchie Lee},
    title = {AdaStress: Adaptive Stress Testing and Interpretable Categorization for Safety-Critical Systems},
    school = {Carnegie Mellon University},
    year = {2019},
    month = {May}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of safety-critical systems,” in Safe, autonomous, and intelligent vehicles, Springer, 2019, p. 77–95.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2019b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Safety-Critical Systems},
    booktitle = {Safe, Autonomous, and Intelligent Vehicles},
    series = {Unmanned Systems Technology},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2019},
    pages = {77--95}
    }
  • R. Lee, Clarke Justin, A. K. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Improving trust in deep neural networks using nearest neighbors,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2020a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Clarke, Justin, and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Improving Trust in Deep Neural Networks using Nearest Neighbors},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2020},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. J. Moss, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory predictions in flight management systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Moss2020a,
    author = {Robert J. Moss and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Predictions in Flight Management Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Scalable autonomous vehicle safety validation through dynamic programming and scene decomposition,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Corso2020a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Scalable Autonomous Vehicle Safety Validation Through Dynamic Programming and Scene Decomposition},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • K. D. Julian, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Validation of image-based neural network controllers through adaptive stress testing,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Julian2020a,
    author = {Kyle D. Julian and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Validation of Image-Based Neural Network Controllers Through Adaptive Stress Testing},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Silbermann, M. Owen, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing: finding likely failure events with reinforcement learning,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 69, p. 1165–1201, 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Lee2020b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Silbermann, Joshua and Owen, Michael and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing: Finding Likely Failure Events with Reinforcement Learning},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2020},
    volume = {69},
    pages = {1165--1201}
    }
  • Proc. 12th international NASA formal methods symposium, R. Lee, S. Jha, A. Mavridou, and D. Giannakoupoulou, Eds., Springer, 2020, vol. 12229.
    [Bibtex]
    @book{Lee2020c,
    title = {Proc. 12th International {NASA} Formal Methods Symposium},
    editor = {Ritchie Lee and Susmit Jha and Anastasia Mavridou and Dimitra Giannakoupoulou},
    series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
    volume = {12229},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2020},
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Machine learning explainability and transferability for path navigation,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Agogino2021a,
    author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Machine Learning Explainability and Transferability for Path Navigation},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. J. Moss, M. Koren, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “A survey of algorithms for black-box safety validation,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 72, p. 377–428, 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Corso2021a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Robert J. Moss and Mark Koren and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {A Survey of Algorithms for Black-box Safety Validation},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2021},
    volume = {72},
    pages = {377--428}
    }
  • M. Durling, H. Herencia-Zapana, B. Meng, M. Meiners, J. Hochwarth, N. Visser, R. Lee, R. Moss, and V. T. Valapil, “Certification considerations for adaptive stress testing of airborne software,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Durling2021a,
    title = {Certification Considerations for Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Software},
    author = {Durling, Michael and Herencia-Zapana, Heber and Meng, Baoluo and Meiners, Mike and Hochwarth, Joachim and Visser, Nicholas and Lee, Ritchie and Moss, Robert and Valapil, Vidhya Tekken},
    booktitle = dasc,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lipkis, R. Lee, J. Silbermann, and T. Young, “Adaptive stress testing of collision avoidance systems for small uass with deep reinforcement learning,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2022.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lipkis2022,
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Collision Avoidance Systems for Small UASs with Deep Reinforcement Learning},
    author = {Lipkis, Rory and Lee, Ritchie and Silbermann, Joshua and Young, Tyler},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2022}
    }
 

Autonomous Vehicle Technologies

We have multiple autonomous vehicle platforms with various computing and sensing capabilities, including the MAX unmanned ground vehicle, X-SCAV half-scale unmanned aircraft, and SWIFT full-scale unmanned electric glider.  We also have vehicle and mission simulation capabilities using the NASA Reflection software framework.  The vehicles have been deployed on a variety of research and scientific missions.   Payload-directed flight (PDF) aims to close the control loop around unconventional sensors such as scientific payloads in order to maximize the return of scientific missions.  PDF integrates sensor measurements,  performs estimation over models of physical processes, and performs intelligent real-time trajectory planning to maximize information gathering and mission value.  In a collaboration with United States Geological Survey (USGS), we have created both hardware and software for conducting autonomous geomagnetic surveys using an unmanned ground vehicle and an unmanned aircraft.

Related Publications:

  • R. Lee and L. Shen, System identification of a Cessna 182 model UAV, 2007.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2007,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Lu Shen},
    title = {System Identification of a {C}essna 182 Model {UAV}},
    organization = {{S}tanford {U}niversity CS229},
    year = {2007}
    }
  • R. Lee and C. Ippolito, “A perception and mapping approach for plume detection in payload directed flight,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2009,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey},
    title = {A Perception and Mapping Approach for Plume Detection in Payload Directed Flight},
    booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2009},
    month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee, C. Ippolito, Y. Yeh, J. Spritzer, and G. Phelps, “Payload-directed control of geophysical magnetic surveys,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010a,
    Title = {Payload-Directed Control of Geophysical Magnetic Surveys},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Spritzer, John and Phelps, Geoffrey},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2010},
    Month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of human behavior in mid-air encounters,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010b,
    Title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Human Behavior in Mid-Air Encounters},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H},
    Booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    Year = {2010}
    }
  • J. Dolan, R. Lee, Y. Yeh, C. Yeh, D. Y. Nguyen, S. Ben-Menahem, and A. K. Ishihara, “Neural network estimation of photovoltaic I–V curves under partially shaded conditions,” in International joint conference on neural networks (ijcnn), 2011, p. 1358–1365.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Dolan2011,
    author = {Dolan, Jacques and Lee, Ritchie and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Yeh, Chiping and Nguyen, Daniel Y and Ben-Menahem, Shahar and Ishihara, Abraham K},
    title = {Neural Network Estimation of Photovoltaic {I}--{V} Curves Under Partially Shaded Conditions},
    booktitle = ijcnn,
    year = {2011},
    pages = {1358--1365},
    organization = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee, S. Backhaus, J. Bono, D. H. Wolpert, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Modeling humans as reinforcement learners: how to predict human behavior in multi-stage games,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2011,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Backhaus, Scott and Bono, James and Wolpert, David H. and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games},
    booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of pilot behavior during mid-air encounters,” in Decision making with imperfect decision makers, Springer, 2012, vol. 28, pp. 75-111.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2012,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H.},
    title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Pilot Behavior During Mid-Air Encounters},
    booktitle = {Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {28},
    series = {Intelligent Systems Reference Library},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {75-111}
    }
  • E. Denney, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, and G. Pai, “An integrated safety and systems engineering methodology for small unmanned aircraft systems,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Denney2012,
    Title = {An Integrated Safety and Systems Engineering Methodology for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
    Author = {Ewen Denney and Corey Ippolito and Ritchie Lee and Ganesh Pai},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • E. J. Schlicht, R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, M. J. Kochenderfer, and B. Tracey, “Predicting the behavior of interacting humans by fusing data from multiple sources,” in Conference on uncertainty in artificial intelligence (uai), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Schlicht2012,
    Title = {Predicting the Behavior of Interacting Humans by Fusing Data from Multiple Sources},
    Author = {Erik J. Schlicht and Ritchie Lee and David H. Wolpert and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Brendan Tracey},
    Booktitle = uai,
    Organization = {AUAI},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • G. Yan, R. Lee, A. Kent, and D. H. Wolpert, “Towards a Bayesian network game framework for evaluating DDoS attacks and defense,” in Conference on computer and communications security (ccs), 2012, p. 553–566.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yan2012,
    Title = {Towards a {B}ayesian Network Game Framework for Evaluating {DDoS} Attacks and Defense},
    Author = {Yan, Guanhua and Lee, Ritchie and Kent, Alex and Wolpert, David H.},
    Booktitle = acmccs,
    Year = {2012},
    Organization = {ACM},
    Pages = {553--566}
    }
  • Y. Yildiz, R. Lee, and G. Brat, “Using game theoretic models to predict pilot behavior in NextGen merging and landing scenario,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yildiz2012,
    Title = {Using Game Theoretic Models to Predict Pilot Behavior in {N}ext{G}en Merging and Landing Scenario},
    Author = {Yildiz, Yildiray and Lee, Ritchie and Brat, Guillaume},
    Booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, J. Bono, S. Backhaus, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Counter-factual reinforcement learning: how to model decision-makers that anticipate the future,” in Decision making and imperfection, Springer, 2013, vol. 474, pp. 101-128.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2013,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H. and Bono, James and Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Counter-Factual Reinforcement Learning: How to Model Decision-Makers That Anticipate the Future},
    booktitle = {Decision Making and Imperfection},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {474},
    series = {Studies in Computational Intelligence},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {101-128}
    }
  • S. Backhaus, R. Bent, J. Bono, R. Lee, B. Tracey, D. H. Wolpert, D. Xie, and Y. Yildiz, “Cyber-physical security: a game theory model of humans interacting over control systems,” Ieee transactions on smart grid, vol. 4, iss. 4, p. 2320–2327, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Backhaus2013,
    author = {Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Bono, James and Lee, Ritchie and Tracey, Brendan and Wolpert, David H. and Xie, Dongping and Yildiz, Yildiray},
    title = {Cyber-Physical Security: A Game Theory Model of Humans Interacting Over Control Systems},
    journal = ieeesg,
    year = {2013},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {2320--2327},
    publisher = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee and M. Rajabi, Assessing NuPIC and CLA in a machine learning context using NASA aviation datasets, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2014,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mariam Rajabi},
    title = {Assessing {NuPIC} and {CLA} in a Machine Learning Context Using {NASA} Aviation Datasets},
    organization = {Carnegie Mellon University EE18799-SV},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • G. A. Phelps, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, J. Spritzer, and Y. Yeh, “Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle,” United States Geological Survey (USGS) 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Phelps2014,
    author = {Phelps, Geoffrey A and Ippolito, Corey and Lee, Ritchie and Spritzer, John and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu},
    title = {Investigations into Near-Real-Time Surveying for Geophysical Data Collection Using an Autonomous Ground Vehicle},
    institution = usgs,
    year = {2014}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, G. P. Brat, and M. P. Owen, “Adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2015,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Ole J. Mengshoel and Guillaume P. Brat and Michael P. Owen},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • A. Agogino, A. Iscen, R. Lee, D. Bowers, K. Tumer, and G. Brat, “Scalable hierarchical multifidelity simulation and multiagent optimization of air traffic,” in AAMAS workshop on massive multiagent systems, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2015,
    Title = {Scalable Hierarchical Multifidelity Simulation and Multiagent Optimization of Air Traffic},
    Author = {Adrian Agogino and Atil Iscen and Ritchie Lee and Devin Bowers and Kagan Tumer and Guillaume Brat},
    Booktitle = {{AAMAS} Workshop on Massive Multiagent Systems},
    Year = {2015}
    }
  • R. Lee, A. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Algorithms and tools for model-based V&V of autonomy software,” NASA 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Lee2017,
    Title = {Algorithms and Tools for Model-Based {V\&V} of Autonomy Software},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Agogino, Adrian and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    Institution = {NASA},
    Year = {2017}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Brush, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Differential adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Brush, Jeffrey and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Differential Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    year = {2018},
    note = {Best Paper Award},
    Organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, and J. Silbermann, “Interpretable categorization of heterogeneous time series data,” in International conference on data mining (sdm), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Kochenderfer, Mykel J. and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Silbermann, Joshua},
    title = {Interpretable Categorization of Heterogeneous Time Series Data},
    booktitle = sdm,
    year = {2018},
    Organization = {SIAM}
    }
  • M. Koren, S. Alsaif, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing for autonomous vehicles,” in Ieee intelligent vehicles symposium (iv), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Koren2018,
    author = {Mark Koren and Saud Alsaif and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing for Autonomous Vehicles},
    booktitle = iv,
    Organization = {IEEE},
    year = {2018}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. K. Agogino, D. Giannakopoulou, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory planning systems,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2019a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Planning Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2019},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Challenges of explaining real-time planning,” in ICAPS workshop on explainable planning (XAIP), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2019a,
    Author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Challenges of Explaining Real-Time Planning},
    booktitle = {{ICAPS} Workshop on Explainable Planning ({XAIP})},
    year = {2019}
    }
  • R. Lee, “Adastress: adaptive stress testing and interpretable categorization for safety-critical systems,” PhD Thesis, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @phdthesis{leethesis,
    author = {Ritchie Lee},
    title = {AdaStress: Adaptive Stress Testing and Interpretable Categorization for Safety-Critical Systems},
    school = {Carnegie Mellon University},
    year = {2019},
    month = {May}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of safety-critical systems,” in Safe, autonomous, and intelligent vehicles, Springer, 2019, p. 77–95.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2019b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Safety-Critical Systems},
    booktitle = {Safe, Autonomous, and Intelligent Vehicles},
    series = {Unmanned Systems Technology},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2019},
    pages = {77--95}
    }
  • R. Lee, Clarke Justin, A. K. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Improving trust in deep neural networks using nearest neighbors,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2020a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Clarke, Justin, and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Improving Trust in Deep Neural Networks using Nearest Neighbors},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2020},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. J. Moss, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory predictions in flight management systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Moss2020a,
    author = {Robert J. Moss and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Predictions in Flight Management Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Scalable autonomous vehicle safety validation through dynamic programming and scene decomposition,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Corso2020a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Scalable Autonomous Vehicle Safety Validation Through Dynamic Programming and Scene Decomposition},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • K. D. Julian, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Validation of image-based neural network controllers through adaptive stress testing,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Julian2020a,
    author = {Kyle D. Julian and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Validation of Image-Based Neural Network Controllers Through Adaptive Stress Testing},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Silbermann, M. Owen, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing: finding likely failure events with reinforcement learning,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 69, p. 1165–1201, 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Lee2020b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Silbermann, Joshua and Owen, Michael and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing: Finding Likely Failure Events with Reinforcement Learning},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2020},
    volume = {69},
    pages = {1165--1201}
    }
  • Proc. 12th international NASA formal methods symposium, R. Lee, S. Jha, A. Mavridou, and D. Giannakoupoulou, Eds., Springer, 2020, vol. 12229.
    [Bibtex]
    @book{Lee2020c,
    title = {Proc. 12th International {NASA} Formal Methods Symposium},
    editor = {Ritchie Lee and Susmit Jha and Anastasia Mavridou and Dimitra Giannakoupoulou},
    series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
    volume = {12229},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2020},
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Machine learning explainability and transferability for path navigation,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Agogino2021a,
    author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Machine Learning Explainability and Transferability for Path Navigation},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. J. Moss, M. Koren, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “A survey of algorithms for black-box safety validation,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 72, p. 377–428, 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Corso2021a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Robert J. Moss and Mark Koren and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {A Survey of Algorithms for Black-box Safety Validation},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2021},
    volume = {72},
    pages = {377--428}
    }
  • M. Durling, H. Herencia-Zapana, B. Meng, M. Meiners, J. Hochwarth, N. Visser, R. Lee, R. Moss, and V. T. Valapil, “Certification considerations for adaptive stress testing of airborne software,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Durling2021a,
    title = {Certification Considerations for Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Software},
    author = {Durling, Michael and Herencia-Zapana, Heber and Meng, Baoluo and Meiners, Mike and Hochwarth, Joachim and Visser, Nicholas and Lee, Ritchie and Moss, Robert and Valapil, Vidhya Tekken},
    booktitle = dasc,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lipkis, R. Lee, J. Silbermann, and T. Young, “Adaptive stress testing of collision avoidance systems for small uass with deep reinforcement learning,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2022.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lipkis2022,
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Collision Avoidance Systems for Small UASs with Deep Reinforcement Learning},
    author = {Lipkis, Rory and Lee, Ritchie and Silbermann, Joshua and Young, Tyler},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2022}
    }
 

Modeling Multiple Human Decision-Makers

Network-Form Game (NFG) is a novel framework for modeling stochastic systems with multiple human actors.  The approach combines ideas from game theory, probabilistic models, and reinforcement learning to capture stochastic, bounded rational, and strategic decision-making behavior.  NFG models scenarios over a Bayesian network but adds special decision nodes for the actors.  The decision nodes are aware of the structure of the scenario but receive limited information from their observation.  They behave strategically using level-K thinking.  The NFG approach has been applied to model aircraft collision avoidance, human-in-the-loop experiments, and cyber-security of computer networks and smart power grids.

Related Publications:

  • R. Lee and L. Shen, System identification of a Cessna 182 model UAV, 2007.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2007,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Lu Shen},
    title = {System Identification of a {C}essna 182 Model {UAV}},
    organization = {{S}tanford {U}niversity CS229},
    year = {2007}
    }
  • R. Lee and C. Ippolito, “A perception and mapping approach for plume detection in payload directed flight,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2009,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey},
    title = {A Perception and Mapping Approach for Plume Detection in Payload Directed Flight},
    booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2009},
    month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee, C. Ippolito, Y. Yeh, J. Spritzer, and G. Phelps, “Payload-directed control of geophysical magnetic surveys,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010a,
    Title = {Payload-Directed Control of Geophysical Magnetic Surveys},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Spritzer, John and Phelps, Geoffrey},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2010},
    Month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of human behavior in mid-air encounters,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010b,
    Title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Human Behavior in Mid-Air Encounters},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H},
    Booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    Year = {2010}
    }
  • J. Dolan, R. Lee, Y. Yeh, C. Yeh, D. Y. Nguyen, S. Ben-Menahem, and A. K. Ishihara, “Neural network estimation of photovoltaic I–V curves under partially shaded conditions,” in International joint conference on neural networks (ijcnn), 2011, p. 1358–1365.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Dolan2011,
    author = {Dolan, Jacques and Lee, Ritchie and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Yeh, Chiping and Nguyen, Daniel Y and Ben-Menahem, Shahar and Ishihara, Abraham K},
    title = {Neural Network Estimation of Photovoltaic {I}--{V} Curves Under Partially Shaded Conditions},
    booktitle = ijcnn,
    year = {2011},
    pages = {1358--1365},
    organization = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee, S. Backhaus, J. Bono, D. H. Wolpert, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Modeling humans as reinforcement learners: how to predict human behavior in multi-stage games,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2011,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Backhaus, Scott and Bono, James and Wolpert, David H. and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games},
    booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of pilot behavior during mid-air encounters,” in Decision making with imperfect decision makers, Springer, 2012, vol. 28, pp. 75-111.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2012,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H.},
    title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Pilot Behavior During Mid-Air Encounters},
    booktitle = {Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {28},
    series = {Intelligent Systems Reference Library},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {75-111}
    }
  • E. Denney, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, and G. Pai, “An integrated safety and systems engineering methodology for small unmanned aircraft systems,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Denney2012,
    Title = {An Integrated Safety and Systems Engineering Methodology for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
    Author = {Ewen Denney and Corey Ippolito and Ritchie Lee and Ganesh Pai},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • E. J. Schlicht, R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, M. J. Kochenderfer, and B. Tracey, “Predicting the behavior of interacting humans by fusing data from multiple sources,” in Conference on uncertainty in artificial intelligence (uai), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Schlicht2012,
    Title = {Predicting the Behavior of Interacting Humans by Fusing Data from Multiple Sources},
    Author = {Erik J. Schlicht and Ritchie Lee and David H. Wolpert and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Brendan Tracey},
    Booktitle = uai,
    Organization = {AUAI},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • G. Yan, R. Lee, A. Kent, and D. H. Wolpert, “Towards a Bayesian network game framework for evaluating DDoS attacks and defense,” in Conference on computer and communications security (ccs), 2012, p. 553–566.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yan2012,
    Title = {Towards a {B}ayesian Network Game Framework for Evaluating {DDoS} Attacks and Defense},
    Author = {Yan, Guanhua and Lee, Ritchie and Kent, Alex and Wolpert, David H.},
    Booktitle = acmccs,
    Year = {2012},
    Organization = {ACM},
    Pages = {553--566}
    }
  • Y. Yildiz, R. Lee, and G. Brat, “Using game theoretic models to predict pilot behavior in NextGen merging and landing scenario,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yildiz2012,
    Title = {Using Game Theoretic Models to Predict Pilot Behavior in {N}ext{G}en Merging and Landing Scenario},
    Author = {Yildiz, Yildiray and Lee, Ritchie and Brat, Guillaume},
    Booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, J. Bono, S. Backhaus, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Counter-factual reinforcement learning: how to model decision-makers that anticipate the future,” in Decision making and imperfection, Springer, 2013, vol. 474, pp. 101-128.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2013,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H. and Bono, James and Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Counter-Factual Reinforcement Learning: How to Model Decision-Makers That Anticipate the Future},
    booktitle = {Decision Making and Imperfection},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {474},
    series = {Studies in Computational Intelligence},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {101-128}
    }
  • S. Backhaus, R. Bent, J. Bono, R. Lee, B. Tracey, D. H. Wolpert, D. Xie, and Y. Yildiz, “Cyber-physical security: a game theory model of humans interacting over control systems,” Ieee transactions on smart grid, vol. 4, iss. 4, p. 2320–2327, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Backhaus2013,
    author = {Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Bono, James and Lee, Ritchie and Tracey, Brendan and Wolpert, David H. and Xie, Dongping and Yildiz, Yildiray},
    title = {Cyber-Physical Security: A Game Theory Model of Humans Interacting Over Control Systems},
    journal = ieeesg,
    year = {2013},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {2320--2327},
    publisher = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee and M. Rajabi, Assessing NuPIC and CLA in a machine learning context using NASA aviation datasets, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2014,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mariam Rajabi},
    title = {Assessing {NuPIC} and {CLA} in a Machine Learning Context Using {NASA} Aviation Datasets},
    organization = {Carnegie Mellon University EE18799-SV},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • G. A. Phelps, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, J. Spritzer, and Y. Yeh, “Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle,” United States Geological Survey (USGS) 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Phelps2014,
    author = {Phelps, Geoffrey A and Ippolito, Corey and Lee, Ritchie and Spritzer, John and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu},
    title = {Investigations into Near-Real-Time Surveying for Geophysical Data Collection Using an Autonomous Ground Vehicle},
    institution = usgs,
    year = {2014}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, G. P. Brat, and M. P. Owen, “Adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2015,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Ole J. Mengshoel and Guillaume P. Brat and Michael P. Owen},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • A. Agogino, A. Iscen, R. Lee, D. Bowers, K. Tumer, and G. Brat, “Scalable hierarchical multifidelity simulation and multiagent optimization of air traffic,” in AAMAS workshop on massive multiagent systems, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2015,
    Title = {Scalable Hierarchical Multifidelity Simulation and Multiagent Optimization of Air Traffic},
    Author = {Adrian Agogino and Atil Iscen and Ritchie Lee and Devin Bowers and Kagan Tumer and Guillaume Brat},
    Booktitle = {{AAMAS} Workshop on Massive Multiagent Systems},
    Year = {2015}
    }
  • R. Lee, A. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Algorithms and tools for model-based V&V of autonomy software,” NASA 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Lee2017,
    Title = {Algorithms and Tools for Model-Based {V\&V} of Autonomy Software},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Agogino, Adrian and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    Institution = {NASA},
    Year = {2017}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Brush, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Differential adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Brush, Jeffrey and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Differential Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    year = {2018},
    note = {Best Paper Award},
    Organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, and J. Silbermann, “Interpretable categorization of heterogeneous time series data,” in International conference on data mining (sdm), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Kochenderfer, Mykel J. and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Silbermann, Joshua},
    title = {Interpretable Categorization of Heterogeneous Time Series Data},
    booktitle = sdm,
    year = {2018},
    Organization = {SIAM}
    }
  • M. Koren, S. Alsaif, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing for autonomous vehicles,” in Ieee intelligent vehicles symposium (iv), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Koren2018,
    author = {Mark Koren and Saud Alsaif and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing for Autonomous Vehicles},
    booktitle = iv,
    Organization = {IEEE},
    year = {2018}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. K. Agogino, D. Giannakopoulou, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory planning systems,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2019a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Planning Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2019},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Challenges of explaining real-time planning,” in ICAPS workshop on explainable planning (XAIP), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2019a,
    Author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Challenges of Explaining Real-Time Planning},
    booktitle = {{ICAPS} Workshop on Explainable Planning ({XAIP})},
    year = {2019}
    }
  • R. Lee, “Adastress: adaptive stress testing and interpretable categorization for safety-critical systems,” PhD Thesis, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @phdthesis{leethesis,
    author = {Ritchie Lee},
    title = {AdaStress: Adaptive Stress Testing and Interpretable Categorization for Safety-Critical Systems},
    school = {Carnegie Mellon University},
    year = {2019},
    month = {May}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of safety-critical systems,” in Safe, autonomous, and intelligent vehicles, Springer, 2019, p. 77–95.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2019b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Safety-Critical Systems},
    booktitle = {Safe, Autonomous, and Intelligent Vehicles},
    series = {Unmanned Systems Technology},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2019},
    pages = {77--95}
    }
  • R. Lee, Clarke Justin, A. K. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Improving trust in deep neural networks using nearest neighbors,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2020a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Clarke, Justin, and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Improving Trust in Deep Neural Networks using Nearest Neighbors},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2020},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. J. Moss, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory predictions in flight management systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Moss2020a,
    author = {Robert J. Moss and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Predictions in Flight Management Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Scalable autonomous vehicle safety validation through dynamic programming and scene decomposition,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Corso2020a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Scalable Autonomous Vehicle Safety Validation Through Dynamic Programming and Scene Decomposition},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • K. D. Julian, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Validation of image-based neural network controllers through adaptive stress testing,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Julian2020a,
    author = {Kyle D. Julian and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Validation of Image-Based Neural Network Controllers Through Adaptive Stress Testing},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Silbermann, M. Owen, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing: finding likely failure events with reinforcement learning,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 69, p. 1165–1201, 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Lee2020b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Silbermann, Joshua and Owen, Michael and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing: Finding Likely Failure Events with Reinforcement Learning},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2020},
    volume = {69},
    pages = {1165--1201}
    }
  • Proc. 12th international NASA formal methods symposium, R. Lee, S. Jha, A. Mavridou, and D. Giannakoupoulou, Eds., Springer, 2020, vol. 12229.
    [Bibtex]
    @book{Lee2020c,
    title = {Proc. 12th International {NASA} Formal Methods Symposium},
    editor = {Ritchie Lee and Susmit Jha and Anastasia Mavridou and Dimitra Giannakoupoulou},
    series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
    volume = {12229},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2020},
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Machine learning explainability and transferability for path navigation,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Agogino2021a,
    author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Machine Learning Explainability and Transferability for Path Navigation},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. J. Moss, M. Koren, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “A survey of algorithms for black-box safety validation,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 72, p. 377–428, 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Corso2021a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Robert J. Moss and Mark Koren and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {A Survey of Algorithms for Black-box Safety Validation},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2021},
    volume = {72},
    pages = {377--428}
    }
  • M. Durling, H. Herencia-Zapana, B. Meng, M. Meiners, J. Hochwarth, N. Visser, R. Lee, R. Moss, and V. T. Valapil, “Certification considerations for adaptive stress testing of airborne software,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Durling2021a,
    title = {Certification Considerations for Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Software},
    author = {Durling, Michael and Herencia-Zapana, Heber and Meng, Baoluo and Meiners, Mike and Hochwarth, Joachim and Visser, Nicholas and Lee, Ritchie and Moss, Robert and Valapil, Vidhya Tekken},
    booktitle = dasc,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lipkis, R. Lee, J. Silbermann, and T. Young, “Adaptive stress testing of collision avoidance systems for small uass with deep reinforcement learning,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2022.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lipkis2022,
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Collision Avoidance Systems for Small UASs with Deep Reinforcement Learning},
    author = {Lipkis, Rory and Lee, Ritchie and Silbermann, Joshua and Young, Tyler},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2022}
    }
 

Multi-Fidelity Air Traffic Simulator

Multi-fidelity simulator (MFSim) is a fast-time air traffic simulator of the national airspace that simulates aircraft at different levels of abstraction in order to gain computational savings.  The simulator is used as a research platform for multi-agent reinforcement learning of air traffic management policies.

Related Publications:

  • R. Lee and L. Shen, System identification of a Cessna 182 model UAV, 2007.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2007,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Lu Shen},
    title = {System Identification of a {C}essna 182 Model {UAV}},
    organization = {{S}tanford {U}niversity CS229},
    year = {2007}
    }
  • R. Lee and C. Ippolito, “A perception and mapping approach for plume detection in payload directed flight,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2009,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey},
    title = {A Perception and Mapping Approach for Plume Detection in Payload Directed Flight},
    booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2009},
    month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee, C. Ippolito, Y. Yeh, J. Spritzer, and G. Phelps, “Payload-directed control of geophysical magnetic surveys,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010a,
    Title = {Payload-Directed Control of Geophysical Magnetic Surveys},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Ippolito, Corey and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Spritzer, John and Phelps, Geoffrey},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2010},
    Month = {April}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of human behavior in mid-air encounters,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2010b,
    Title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Human Behavior in Mid-Air Encounters},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H},
    Booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    Year = {2010}
    }
  • J. Dolan, R. Lee, Y. Yeh, C. Yeh, D. Y. Nguyen, S. Ben-Menahem, and A. K. Ishihara, “Neural network estimation of photovoltaic I–V curves under partially shaded conditions,” in International joint conference on neural networks (ijcnn), 2011, p. 1358–1365.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Dolan2011,
    author = {Dolan, Jacques and Lee, Ritchie and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu and Yeh, Chiping and Nguyen, Daniel Y and Ben-Menahem, Shahar and Ishihara, Abraham K},
    title = {Neural Network Estimation of Photovoltaic {I}--{V} Curves Under Partially Shaded Conditions},
    booktitle = ijcnn,
    year = {2011},
    pages = {1358--1365},
    organization = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee, S. Backhaus, J. Bono, D. H. Wolpert, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Modeling humans as reinforcement learners: how to predict human behavior in multi-stage games,” in NIPS workshop on decision making with multiple imperfect decision makers, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2011,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Backhaus, Scott and Bono, James and Wolpert, David H. and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games},
    booktitle = {{NIPS} Workshop on Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • R. Lee and D. H. Wolpert, “Game theoretic modeling of pilot behavior during mid-air encounters,” in Decision making with imperfect decision makers, Springer, 2012, vol. 28, pp. 75-111.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2012,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H.},
    title = {Game Theoretic Modeling of Pilot Behavior During Mid-Air Encounters},
    booktitle = {Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {28},
    series = {Intelligent Systems Reference Library},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {75-111}
    }
  • E. Denney, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, and G. Pai, “An integrated safety and systems engineering methodology for small unmanned aircraft systems,” in Aiaa infotech@aerospace conference, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Denney2012,
    Title = {An Integrated Safety and Systems Engineering Methodology for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
    Author = {Ewen Denney and Corey Ippolito and Ritchie Lee and Ganesh Pai},
    Booktitle = aiaa_info,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • E. J. Schlicht, R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, M. J. Kochenderfer, and B. Tracey, “Predicting the behavior of interacting humans by fusing data from multiple sources,” in Conference on uncertainty in artificial intelligence (uai), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Schlicht2012,
    Title = {Predicting the Behavior of Interacting Humans by Fusing Data from Multiple Sources},
    Author = {Erik J. Schlicht and Ritchie Lee and David H. Wolpert and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Brendan Tracey},
    Booktitle = uai,
    Organization = {AUAI},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • G. Yan, R. Lee, A. Kent, and D. H. Wolpert, “Towards a Bayesian network game framework for evaluating DDoS attacks and defense,” in Conference on computer and communications security (ccs), 2012, p. 553–566.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yan2012,
    Title = {Towards a {B}ayesian Network Game Framework for Evaluating {DDoS} Attacks and Defense},
    Author = {Yan, Guanhua and Lee, Ritchie and Kent, Alex and Wolpert, David H.},
    Booktitle = acmccs,
    Year = {2012},
    Organization = {ACM},
    Pages = {553--566}
    }
  • Y. Yildiz, R. Lee, and G. Brat, “Using game theoretic models to predict pilot behavior in NextGen merging and landing scenario,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Yildiz2012,
    Title = {Using Game Theoretic Models to Predict Pilot Behavior in {N}ext{G}en Merging and Landing Scenario},
    Author = {Yildiz, Yildiray and Lee, Ritchie and Brat, Guillaume},
    Booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    Organization = {AIAA},
    Year = {2012}
    }
  • R. Lee, D. H. Wolpert, J. Bono, S. Backhaus, R. Bent, and B. Tracey, “Counter-factual reinforcement learning: how to model decision-makers that anticipate the future,” in Decision making and imperfection, Springer, 2013, vol. 474, pp. 101-128.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2013,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Wolpert, David H. and Bono, James and Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Tracey, Brendan},
    title = {Counter-Factual Reinforcement Learning: How to Model Decision-Makers That Anticipate the Future},
    booktitle = {Decision Making and Imperfection},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {474},
    series = {Studies in Computational Intelligence},
    chapter = {4},
    pages = {101-128}
    }
  • S. Backhaus, R. Bent, J. Bono, R. Lee, B. Tracey, D. H. Wolpert, D. Xie, and Y. Yildiz, “Cyber-physical security: a game theory model of humans interacting over control systems,” Ieee transactions on smart grid, vol. 4, iss. 4, p. 2320–2327, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Backhaus2013,
    author = {Backhaus, Scott and Bent, Russell and Bono, James and Lee, Ritchie and Tracey, Brendan and Wolpert, David H. and Xie, Dongping and Yildiz, Yildiray},
    title = {Cyber-Physical Security: A Game Theory Model of Humans Interacting Over Control Systems},
    journal = ieeesg,
    year = {2013},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {2320--2327},
    publisher = {IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lee and M. Rajabi, Assessing NuPIC and CLA in a machine learning context using NASA aviation datasets, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @Unpublished{Lee2014,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mariam Rajabi},
    title = {Assessing {NuPIC} and {CLA} in a Machine Learning Context Using {NASA} Aviation Datasets},
    organization = {Carnegie Mellon University EE18799-SV},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • G. A. Phelps, C. Ippolito, R. Lee, J. Spritzer, and Y. Yeh, “Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle,” United States Geological Survey (USGS) 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Phelps2014,
    author = {Phelps, Geoffrey A and Ippolito, Corey and Lee, Ritchie and Spritzer, John and Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu},
    title = {Investigations into Near-Real-Time Surveying for Geophysical Data Collection Using an Autonomous Ground Vehicle},
    institution = usgs,
    year = {2014}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, G. P. Brat, and M. P. Owen, “Adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2015,
    author = {Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer and Ole J. Mengshoel and Guillaume P. Brat and Michael P. Owen},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • A. Agogino, A. Iscen, R. Lee, D. Bowers, K. Tumer, and G. Brat, “Scalable hierarchical multifidelity simulation and multiagent optimization of air traffic,” in AAMAS workshop on massive multiagent systems, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2015,
    Title = {Scalable Hierarchical Multifidelity Simulation and Multiagent Optimization of Air Traffic},
    Author = {Adrian Agogino and Atil Iscen and Ritchie Lee and Devin Bowers and Kagan Tumer and Guillaume Brat},
    Booktitle = {{AAMAS} Workshop on Massive Multiagent Systems},
    Year = {2015}
    }
  • R. Lee, A. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Algorithms and tools for model-based V&V of autonomy software,” NASA 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @TechReport{Lee2017,
    Title = {Algorithms and Tools for Model-Based {V\&V} of Autonomy Software},
    Author = {Lee, Ritchie and Agogino, Adrian and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    Institution = {NASA},
    Year = {2017}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Brush, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Differential adaptive stress testing of airborne collision avoidance systems,” in Aiaa scitech, modeling and simulation technologies conference (mst), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Brush, Jeffrey and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Differential Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_mst,
    year = {2018},
    note = {Best Paper Award},
    Organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. Lee, M. J. Kochenderfer, O. J. Mengshoel, and J. Silbermann, “Interpretable categorization of heterogeneous time series data,” in International conference on data mining (sdm), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Lee2018b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Kochenderfer, Mykel J. and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Silbermann, Joshua},
    title = {Interpretable Categorization of Heterogeneous Time Series Data},
    booktitle = sdm,
    year = {2018},
    Organization = {SIAM}
    }
  • M. Koren, S. Alsaif, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing for autonomous vehicles,” in Ieee intelligent vehicles symposium (iv), 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Koren2018,
    author = {Mark Koren and Saud Alsaif and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing for Autonomous Vehicles},
    booktitle = iv,
    Organization = {IEEE},
    year = {2018}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. K. Agogino, D. Giannakopoulou, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory planning systems,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2019a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Planning Systems},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2019},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Challenges of explaining real-time planning,” in ICAPS workshop on explainable planning (XAIP), 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Agogino2019a,
    Author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Challenges of Explaining Real-Time Planning},
    booktitle = {{ICAPS} Workshop on Explainable Planning ({XAIP})},
    year = {2019}
    }
  • R. Lee, “Adastress: adaptive stress testing and interpretable categorization for safety-critical systems,” PhD Thesis, 2019.
    [Bibtex]
    @phdthesis{leethesis,
    author = {Ritchie Lee},
    title = {AdaStress: Adaptive Stress Testing and Interpretable Categorization for Safety-Critical Systems},
    school = {Carnegie Mellon University},
    year = {2019},
    month = {May}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of safety-critical systems,” in Safe, autonomous, and intelligent vehicles, Springer, 2019, p. 77–95.
    [Bibtex]
    @InCollection{Lee2019b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Safety-Critical Systems},
    booktitle = {Safe, Autonomous, and Intelligent Vehicles},
    series = {Unmanned Systems Technology},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2019},
    pages = {77--95}
    }
  • R. Lee, Clarke Justin, A. K. Agogino, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Improving trust in deep neural networks using nearest neighbors,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lee2020a,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Clarke, Justin, and Agogino, Adrian K. and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Improving Trust in Deep Neural Networks using Nearest Neighbors},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2020},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • R. J. Moss, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing of trajectory predictions in flight management systems,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Moss2020a,
    author = {Robert J. Moss and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Trajectory Predictions in Flight Management Systems},
    booktitle = dasc,
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE},
    note = {Best Paper of Session},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Scalable autonomous vehicle safety validation through dynamic programming and scene decomposition,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Corso2020a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Scalable Autonomous Vehicle Safety Validation Through Dynamic Programming and Scene Decomposition},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • K. D. Julian, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Validation of image-based neural network controllers through adaptive stress testing,” in Ieee international conference on intelligent transportation systems (itsc), 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Julian2020a,
    author = {Kyle D. Julian and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    booktitle = itsc,
    title = {Validation of Image-Based Neural Network Controllers Through Adaptive Stress Testing},
    year = {2020}
    }
  • R. Lee, O. J. Mengshoel, A. Saksena, R. Gardner, D. Genin, J. Silbermann, M. Owen, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “Adaptive stress testing: finding likely failure events with reinforcement learning,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 69, p. 1165–1201, 2020.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Lee2020b,
    author = {Lee, Ritchie and Mengshoel, Ole J. and Saksena, Anshu and Gardner, Ryan and Genin, Daniel and Silbermann, Joshua and Owen, Michael and Kochenderfer, Mykel J.},
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing: Finding Likely Failure Events with Reinforcement Learning},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2020},
    volume = {69},
    pages = {1165--1201}
    }
  • Proc. 12th international NASA formal methods symposium, R. Lee, S. Jha, A. Mavridou, and D. Giannakoupoulou, Eds., Springer, 2020, vol. 12229.
    [Bibtex]
    @book{Lee2020c,
    title = {Proc. 12th International {NASA} Formal Methods Symposium},
    editor = {Ritchie Lee and Susmit Jha and Anastasia Mavridou and Dimitra Giannakoupoulou},
    series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
    volume = {12229},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2020},
    }
  • A. K. Agogino, R. Lee, and D. Giannakopoulou, “Machine learning explainability and transferability for path navigation,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Agogino2021a,
    author = {Agogino, Adrian K. and Lee, Ritchie and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra},
    title = {Machine Learning Explainability and Transferability for Path Navigation},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA}
    }
  • A. Corso, R. J. Moss, M. Koren, R. Lee, and M. J. Kochenderfer, “A survey of algorithms for black-box safety validation,” Journal of artificial intelligence research, vol. 72, p. 377–428, 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Corso2021a,
    author = {Anthony Corso and Robert J. Moss and Mark Koren and Ritchie Lee and Mykel J. Kochenderfer},
    title = {A Survey of Algorithms for Black-box Safety Validation},
    journal = jair,
    year = {2021},
    volume = {72},
    pages = {377--428}
    }
  • M. Durling, H. Herencia-Zapana, B. Meng, M. Meiners, J. Hochwarth, N. Visser, R. Lee, R. Moss, and V. T. Valapil, “Certification considerations for adaptive stress testing of airborne software,” in Ieee/aiaa digital avionics systems conference (dasc), 2021.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Durling2021a,
    title = {Certification Considerations for Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Software},
    author = {Durling, Michael and Herencia-Zapana, Heber and Meng, Baoluo and Meiners, Mike and Hochwarth, Joachim and Visser, Nicholas and Lee, Ritchie and Moss, Robert and Valapil, Vidhya Tekken},
    booktitle = dasc,
    year = {2021},
    organization = {AIAA/IEEE}
    }
  • R. Lipkis, R. Lee, J. Silbermann, and T. Young, “Adaptive stress testing of collision avoidance systems for small uass with deep reinforcement learning,” in Aiaa scitech, intelligent systems conference (is), 2022.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Lipkis2022,
    title = {Adaptive Stress Testing of Collision Avoidance Systems for Small UASs with Deep Reinforcement Learning},
    author = {Lipkis, Rory and Lee, Ritchie and Silbermann, Joshua and Young, Tyler},
    booktitle = aiaa_is,
    organization = {AIAA},
    year = {2022}
    }